Tuesday, May 19, 2020

Miss - 1353 Words

Master of Public Administration (MPA) About the MPA Program The Master of Public Administration (MPA) program, accredited by the Canadian Association of Programs in Public Administration (CAPPA), is designed to prepare students for careers in public administration and policy work in diverse areas such as non-government organizations, industry associations, and, of course, the public service. MPA students are exposed to core concepts in policy formation and analysis, and have the opportunity to explore substantive areas such as social policy, health policy, innovation policy, trade and immigration policy, resource and environmental policy, and public sector management. This combination of theory, application and research ensures that our†¦show more content†¦FALASTEIN, PROJECT MANAGER - STRATEGIC PLANNING, PLANNING, POLICY PERFORMANCE, SASKATOON HEALTH REGION; MPA GRADUATE, UNIVERSITY OF SASKATCHEWAN CAMPUS JSGS 817 - Health Policy JSGS 818 - Program Evaluation JSGS 819 - Gender and Public Policy JSGS 822 - Comparative Public Policy JSGS 840 - Public Policy and Public Opinion JSGS 849 - Social Economy and Public Policy JSGS 854 - Higher Education Policy JSGS 859 - Innovation Policy JSGS 863 - Aboriginal Peoples and Public Policy JSGS 864 - Social Policy: Interdisciplinary Perspectives JSGS 868 - Resource and Environmental Policy JSGS 872 - International Trade and Commercial Policy (online) JSGS 875 - Politics of International Trade (online) The three remaining elective courses (9 credit units) must be selected from the courses offered by the school and can be taken at either campus. JSGS 872 and JSGS 875, which are on the list of approved public policy restricted electives, are both online courses. Students wishing to take online courses other than these two must first have approval from the graduate chair at their home campus. Please note, space is limited in online course s and priority will be given to students enrolled in the MITShow MoreRelatedMiss Brill5112 Words   |  21 PagesStylistic Analysis of â€Å"Miss Brill† by Katherine Mansfield Shenli Song College of Foreign Languages, Zhejiang Gongshang University Office of Foreign Language College at Zhejiang Gongshang University Xia Sha City-University-Town, Hangzhou 310018, Zhejiang, China E-mail: windyforever@gmail.com Abstract Katherine Mansfield, remembered as one of the finest writers of English short stories, enjoys enduring fame and a somewhat awesome literary status with her short stories, Miss Brill as one of her representativeRead MoreAnalysis Of The Movie Miss Julie 1264 Words   |  6 Pagesthings as they actual exists† (Google). In Miss Julie written by August Strindberg, this play displayed his attempt at representing realism. Creating reality in theater requires implanting realistic points such as characters, actions, and dialogue that is accurate to real life. Foremost, characters are a main part of a play. Establishing characters with relatable backgrounds to people and depth makes the work more believable to the viewer or reader. Miss Julie, who is twenty-five years of age andRead MoreCharacter Analysis Of Miss Havisham1948 Words   |  8 Pagesmakes me think that Miss Havisham is somebody, which is very wealthy, mysterious, in addition respected by various people. Moreover, from the passage I can infer that Pip is extremely confused by the situation, moreover is afraid that he will leave his only companion, Joe. Furthermore, from the passage I can infer that the reasoning Mr.Pumblechook forces Pip to go to Miss Havisham is for his own self-interest, being perhaps he wants to benefit from Pip and gain a large reward from Miss Havisham. (91)Read MoreThe Inclusion of Transgender Women in the Miss Universe1276 Words   |  6 Pages Chapter I Introduction In a beauty-pageant-crazy country like the Philippines, the annual Miss Universe pageantry is a most-awaited event for many Filipinos. It is that time when many Filipino people gravitate towards their TV sets with their eyes wide open as though entranced on the pageant events as they unfold. Probably next to boxing, the Miss Universe pageant is the most-widely watched worldwide event in the Philippines. As evidence of the country’s penchant for this event, the country hasRead MoreSymbolism In Miss Brill, By Katherine Mansfield1143 Words   |  5 PagesMiss Brill is a short fiction story written by Katherine Mansfield, which was first published in November 1920 in Athenaeum, an English literary magazine and then in Mansfield’s The Garden Party Other Stories. The story takes place during a Sunday afternoon as an elderly woman enjoys her weekly visit to a French park. She enjoys watching others and sitting in on their lives, while the band plays in the gazebo. This stor y, written in the third person omniscient point of view, is told with a stream-of-consciousnessRead MoreMiss Julie and Swedish Culture1942 Words   |  8 PagesMiss Julie and Swedish Culture The play Miss Julie by August Strindberg is set in Sweden in the late 1800’s on the count’s estate. The play unfolds on Midsummer’s eve throughout the night of the annual celebration. Jean, a thirty-year-old valet, is attempting to enjoy an evening in the kitchen with his lover Christine who works alongside Jean on the manor as a cook. The couples evening is rudely interrupted by miss Julie, the count’s bitter daughter, who requests Jean be her dance partner at theRead MoreEssay about Illusion versus Reality in Miss Brill1124 Words   |  5 PagesIllusion versus Reality in Miss Brill  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚      Is it really okay to talk to yourself as long as you dont talk back? Well, what if your fur piece talks back? In Katherine Mansfields short story, Miss Brill, it is a quickly established fact that Miss Brill has an odd relationship with her fur necklet (440). But it is the authors descriptive use of symbolism that provides a deeper understanding of Miss Brills personality. Katherine Mansfield creates the woman in the ermine toque (441)Read More Values of Miss America Pageant Essay2461 Words   |  10 PagesShe’s intelligence and humility. She’s fair and honesty. She’s Miss United States. These are not the lyrics to the song that is played after a contestant wins the ever-so coveted crown. These are not lyrics to any song at all actually. But why not? Aren’t those all attributes most people yearn for? While of course these characteristics are things everyone tries to perfect throughout their lifetime, this is not the focal point of the Miss America pageant . The actual lyrics are; â€Å"She’s beauty and she’sRead MoreDriving Miss Daisy962 Words   |  4 PagesDriving Miss Daisy depicts a strong friendship that progressively builds between an elderly Jewish widow named Daisy Werthan and an African American chauffeur named Hoke Coleburn. After crashing her car into a neighbor’s property from pressing the reverse peddle too hard, Miss Daisy Werthan lost her privilege to drive on the road. Since she cannot drive, her son hired Hoke to be her personal chauffeur. At first, Miss Daisy refuses to let Hoke drive her anywhere out of fear of losing her independenceRead MoreEssay on Katherine Mansfields Miss Brill1218 Words   |  5 Pagesdisillusioned and confused about how to function as a part of society. One would tend to isolate ourselves, exiled in this place we call the world. In Katherine Mansfield’s short story â€Å"Miss Brill,† one such person, herself a kind of outcast of society, creates a fantas y world in which she is at the center. â€Å"Miss Brill† is the story of a woman battling with loneliness. She partakes in a ritual in which every Sunday she would spend the entire afternoon at the local park eavesdropping and observing

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Gender And Gender Should Not Be Legal Essay - 1987 Words

â€Å"Learning to be Gendered†: What does this even mean? No one wants to be gendered. Every individual works hard for what they earn in their life. It should never matter what their they look like or what their individual sex is or how they look. In today’s world, no one wants to be treated better than the other; everyone wants to be considered equal and have the same opportunity to succeed as the person next to them. In addition; to wanting to feel equal there is a law that states that men and women are equal. Then by issuing this law it is stating that no matter your gender, thing that you do should not be treated differently based on your sex. Everyone can be who they want to be because in the United States of America everyone’s gender should never be judge. Both sexes have their own opinion and ways to do things and this should not cause any problems. There is truly no factual evidence that will show that our gender decides everything and while growing up gender is throne aside and only thing that should be treated different is the individuals character. Thus, there should not be gender difference with clothing, color, jobs, income, and sports because everyone should be every to settle their own fate based on their preference and not others. First of all, many believe that the colors of clothing we wear should not represent our gender. Many individuals like different colors and each color should not be based off of masculine or feminine. To start, many males like toShow MoreRelatedGender Should Not Be Legal Essay1986 Words   |  8 Pagesfor what they earn in their life. It should never matter at all what their sex is or how they look. In today’s world, no one wants to be treated better than the other; everyone wants to be considered equal and have the same opportunity to succeed as the person next to them. In addition; to wanting to feel equal there is a law that states that men and women are equal. Then by issuing this law it is stating that no matter your gender, thing that you do should not be treated differently based on yourRead MoreShould Gender Selection Be Legalized in Australia for Non-Medical Reasons?1147 Words   |  5 Pagesâ€Å"Should parents have the right to choose the gender of their futur e child? Should it be legalised in Australia for non-medical reasons?† Whether gender selection should be legalised in Australia for all parents to have the right to select the gender of their baby or whether it should stay illegal with the exception of issues caused by sex-linked medical diseases creates a discussion. Selections of different conditions which give a variety of different perspectives of gender selection are gatheredRead MoreDiscourse Community Project : Discourse1705 Words   |  7 Pagesauthors are writing about corresponding ideas and discussing their identical goals; the prevalence of gender inequality in the legal profession and the unjust consequences derived from it. Similarly, all five sources intentions are to oppose the standard viewpoint that gender inequality has diminished and provide evidence to support this claim. Their ideas of remedying gender inequality in the legal profession overlap as well as contradict one another. A discourse community is said to be resistantRead MoreIntroduction. Women In The Legal Profession Today Do Not1505 Words   |  7 PagesIntroduction Women in the legal profession today do not encounter most of the challenges that they were facing 50 years ago. However, gender-based issues still exist that females in the legal profession have to face in today’s world. According to the American Bar Association’s Market Research Department women comprised only 36 percent of legal professionals in the country in April 2016 (Smithey, 2017). The number of women in the legal profession has been growing in last few decades, but evenRead MoreQuestions On Employment Law Questions934 Words   |  4 Pagesby adopting strong anti-harassment policy. This should be clear to the workers and very strict measures being put against those who fall in the case. Periodically, training employees on the impacts of racial segregation is also very essential thus making them aware of the harassments and their impacts. Employers should also make sure they follow and enforce the policies they come up with. The policy should compose the f ollowing; The policy should clearly show the prohibited contacts which are takenRead MoreMarriage Is The Voluntary Union Of One Man And One Woman1662 Words   |  7 Pagesinstitutions to be able to marry same-sex couples at their discretion, safeguarding religious institutions and their delegates from victorious legal provocation if they refused to marry same-sex couples. This piece of legislation also warranted civil partners to metamorphose their civil partnership into marriage, and permitted transsexual individuals to alter their legal gender without inevitably terminated their existing marriage. The Scottish parliament have legislation in place to permit same-sex marriages;Read MoreIntersectionality715 Words   |  3 PagesIntersectionality of Gender Inequality Name: Institution: Intersectionality of Gender Inequality For many decades, women have experienced all forms of oppression and constant violence that threatened their existence in the male-dominated society. Various forms of discrimination and oppression have been directed to women for decades. Violence directed at women such as rape and battery were seen and treated as isolatedRead MoreGender Inequality In Australia Essay1622 Words   |  7 Pagesdomestic partner, subjected wholly to the private sphere, and stripped of legal rights and standing. Meanwhile, men are depicted as the breadwinner, the strong, masculine and dominant partner, who belongs primarily to the public sphere. These historic gender norms have been deeply imbedded within Australia’s social foundation, and although society has gradually shifted away from these roles, evidence suggests that this gender inequality still riddles the modern day workplace. Liberal feminist groupsRead MoreThe Psychological And Medical Views On Transsexuality Essay1308 Words   |   6 Pagesthat genital cosmetic surgery for intersex infants has been practiced for decades to eliminate gender ambiguity. Proponents of this practice claim that, by assigning a gender at an early age, parents will bond with their intersex child and the child will be subjected to lower dozes of peer rejection and teasing. They virtually ignore the fact that we are forcing people to be forever haunted by their gender-constructed identities, hormones, plastic surgeries and other medical treatments to ‘feminize’Read MoreTransgender Rights : The Transgender Person Is Someone Who Identifies As The Opposite Gender843 Words   |  4 Pages Transgender Rights in America A transgender person is someone who identifies as the opposite gender they were assigned at birth. Transgender people often suffer from gender dysphoria, a condition in which a person feels a psychological disturbance towards their assigned gender. In order to calm their dysphoria, they make the decision to live as who they truly believe themselves to be. A person such as this often faces an umbrella of governmental, societal, occupational, educational, medical, and

Impact of Globalization on Organizational Culture

Question: Discuss about the Impact of Globalization on Organizational Culture. Answer: Introduction Globalization, in the recent few years is seen to have redefined the structure and trend of organizational culture. With the changing employee demographics and market globalization the organizational culture had to adapt certain changes in order to survive the overall effect of globalization on the internal environment of the organizations (Bushe and OMalley 2013). The study aims to evaluate how globalization has been causing major changes in the organizational values and ethics. Aims and Objectives This project attempts to investigate the areas where globalization has imposed significant transformations changing the traditional values. The aims and objectives as proposed in the following will assist in achieving this aim: To probe into the reasons why globalization caused a transition in the organizational culture. To identify the areas where the changes have taken place. To evaluate whether these impacts are positive or unfavorable for the new-age organizations. A Brief Methodology In order to analyze and investigate the above mentioned objectives, a brief methodology needs to be followed. The undertaken methodology will consist of the following measures: Literature Review Organizational culture is viewed as the eventual way to address all the problems of the organization. Many of the researches conducted on the organizational change have been management-centric; however, the ideal approach to find out the truth is to observe meanings of change, experiences and actions of all engaged. Due to globalization, the term universal civilization is in vogue, which if referred to here, conveys the blend of eastern civilization of western culture (Cavusgil et al. 2014). Besides, with growing grievances against discrimination within the organizations, the corporate cultures have become tolerant in the recent few years. Another impact of globalization almost impossible to avoid is that globalization has significantly given rise to global visions in the corporate cultures (Alvesson and Sveningsson, 2015). Since, at present all the major companies have become multinational, the cultural barriers have dissolved and organizations strive to adopt a global outlook inste ad. Besides, due to globalization, many obscuring regional values have been resurrected to take a place in the organizational culture so that the companies can easily establish their identities in the local market (OReilly III et al. 2014). Surveys and Collecting Data The research will be conducted based on qualitative data analysis through surveys and interviews. To acquire qualitative data several persons in the management level of some renowned multinational companies will be interviewed to obtain their experience of changing organizational values and ethics. Next, a survey will be conducted on the employee opinion on how they feel about the changes taken place in their respective organizations. In addition, the survey will attempt to generate an overall opinion whether globalization has had positive impact on the companys performance (Crane and Matten 2016). Observing Key Changes in the Organizational Culture Estimating critical information about the companies altering organizational culture from their CSR reports the specific trends of change will be identified. These reports will also explain how the organizations have been adaptive to these changes and have successfully survived the market risks. There will be one method used for analyzing the data collected i.e. qualitative. However, the data will be collected through two different ways, surveys and interviews (Pieterse 2015). These measures will be examined based on analytical model of organizational culture, which is also referred to as indeterministic model. In addition, Edgar Schein model will also be employed in order to analyzed the acquired qualitative data. References: Alvesson, M. and Sveningsson, S., 2015.Changing organizational culture: Cultural change work in progress. Routledge. Bushe, G.R. and OMalley, J., 2013. Changing organizational culture through Clear Leadership.Prepared for the change champions field guide. Edition John Wiley. Estados Unidos. Cavusgil, S.T., Knight, G., Riesenberger, J.R., Rammal, H.G. and Rose, E.L., 2014.International business. Pearson Australia. Crane, A. and Matten, D., 2016.Business ethics: Managing corporate citizenship and sustainability in the age of globalization. Oxford University Press. OReilly III, C.A., Caldwell, D.F., Chatman, J.A. and Doerr, B., 2014. The promise and problems of organizational culture: CEO personality, culture, and firm performance.Group Organization Management,39(6), pp.595-625. Pieterse, J.N., 2015.Globalization and culture: Global mlange. Rowman Littlefield.

Wednesday, April 22, 2020

Strenghts and weaknesses of qualitative research method. Essay Example

Strenghts and weaknesses of qualitative research method. Essay Soma S? ¤gi Strengths and weaknesses of different research methods This semester my group was tasked with the conduction of a research about how the University of Baths great employability rates affected their University choice. We used qualitative research methods, every member of the group interviewed a first year Social Science student. We then later summarised the data, and looked for common points. All the interviews were semi-constructed, we asked questions which let the interviewee make his/her own points about the subject, thus the answers were not arrowed to the generic ones one could receive when conducting a survey. The interviews were recorded and transcribed for easier summarisation and can be accessed online ( see bibliography ). We found that the interviewees had mainly altruistic motives, they wanted to influence disadvantaged peoples lives, and one interviewee stated that his main motive was to make a world a better place ( see the interview with Adeel ). About the influence of employability rates, the results were mixed, less than half of the participants stated that such rates were a highly influential, for the others the ourse and academical structure was the bigger influence. When the interviewees were asked more specifically about the impact of their course choice on their employability, most stated that the reputation of the Universitys Social Sciences Department will give them an edge on the Job market. The great placement options and excellent quality of teaching will have a positive influence on their employability. It is unsurprising that none of the interviewees mentioned that their University choice would give them any disadvantages. We will write a custom essay sample on Strenghts and weaknesses of qualitative research method. specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Strenghts and weaknesses of qualitative research method. specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Strenghts and weaknesses of qualitative research method. specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer On the topic of employability itself, the subjects agreed on that it is the skills that one acquires that will later being successful on ones field of employment. Extra languages, good communication skills and the ability to function as a member of a team were the most common examples given. I myself found the qualitative method much more enjoyable than the quantitative. Even though both methods have their own advantages and disadvantages, and both can be used with equal success in most cases, the fact that due to the interviews one an actually meet those who are the subjects of the research. Through survey questionnaire one can not do but narrow down the possible answers. The interview format can lead to much nuanced results, the interviewer can ask specific questions related to the answers, thus can clear up any misunderstandings or can acquire new information which later on can prove to be critical for the research. The personal The problem is common in natural scientific experiments as well, and is called The Observer Effect. Just by being there, one can influence the outcome of the xperiment, this even more true when conducting experiments which rely on human honesty. For my research this did not prove to be a problem but it is easily imaginable that for more personal questions, which can cause shame or other strong emotions in the subject ( for example those which involve traumatic events ) this could cause serious issues and could hinder the research until necessary trust is developed, which may cost substantial time and energy and may even not develop fully. All in all, I am satisfied how I conducted my interview. I do not know the subject ery well, thus I was a bit nervous about the trust issues mentioned above, but it turned out there were not any. I chose an environment where the subject could feel at ease, and tried to make it as unofficial as possible, turning the serious questionnaire to a light chat. I conducted my interview in the University Canteen over a cup of coffee and used Just pen and paper to write down the subjects answers, thus making it possible to maintain contact and not barricading myself behind a computer. I do not feel like I made any mistakes during the interview session, but due o its rather light questions and short duration there were no real mistakes to be made. I would prefer using the qualitative research method in the future when needing to acquire data. The quantitative methods, the survey questionnaire feels like it is narrowing down the possible answers too much and Just by the wording of the question one can influence the subjects answers. There are some ethical issues with the qualitative method that need to be addressed. First of all, one always needs the permission of the subject to use the data acquired through the interviews in ones research. Anonymity is often sought after subjects affected by trauma or when answering other personal questions, including but not limited to those about intimacy, physical and mental health. Qualitative research could require the researcher to participate in the subjects everyday life to a great degree, especially in those cases when the subject of the research is a closed group, for example a tribe, rather than a single person. Researchers need to know their boundaries and when not to push these, because that can lead to the subject group shutting out the researcher and to a loss of trust, hus making the research impossible to conduct. Another issue is the question of interception. Does one try to help a child suffering from domestic violence? Does one get involved in issues out of their authority? By doing so they destroy their own research subject. Is that such a great price for actually making an another human beings life better? What if, due to the research, a hundred lives would become better? Those conducting qualitative research in serious issues face these dilemmas every day. In the end, let me express my feeling about such matters. I believe that the main oal of every social scientist should be to somehow, through their own research, may whole but we can bring small changes, even if it is to slightly alter and improve an academic topic, or even a smaller, yet equally important change: bring happiness. Bibliography: All interviews of Qualitative Group 7: httpwwww. scribd. com/doc/190612665/Qu-Alres-Group-7-Data [10. 12. 2013] orb, A. , Eisenhauer, L. , Wynaden, D. , 2000. Ethics in Qualitative Research. Journal of nursing scholarship, 33(1), pp 93-96. Accessed from: http://www. columbia. edu/†mvp19/RMC/ M5/QualEthtcs. pdf [9. 12. 2013]

Monday, March 16, 2020

Essay about In Vitro Fertilization No Refernce

Essay about In Vitro Fertilization No Refernce Essay about In Vitro Fertilization No Refernce For the majority of couples, in vitro fertilization (IVF) represents the final hope for pregnancy after the countless times of failing to conceive. The IVF process is demanding, occurs in an unfamiliar environment, cost about thousand of dollars, and has no guarantee of a successful outcome. However, these couples choose this option in hope of having a baby. Most couples find a way to cope with the stresses of the IVF procedure, and all couples are aware of the pressures which it places upon them. Most women who are unable to conceive naturally resort to IVF as a last option despite the multiple medications, high cost, and significant odds needed to make pregnancy even remotely possible. IVF is a fertility treatment that helps couples who need assistance in conceiving naturally. This process is vital to infertile couples because it gives them another chance of conceiving a child. Couples who do qualify for IVF usually tried other methods before they looked into IVF process. IVF has six major steps for the process of fertilization: monitoring the ripening of the eggs in the woman’s ovaries, collecting the eggs, collecting sperm, incubation of the egg and sperm in the laboratory, transferring the embryo to the uterus, and waiting for either a positive pregnancy result or menstruation. More than tens of thousands healthy children are born through IVF. The number one aim for IVF has been to mimic nature as best as possible using artificial insemination. It’s really important for anyone considering IVF to understand to process along with any limitations. Women who want to start the IVF route need to start a daily injection dose of hormonal medication know as Gonadotropins to promote maturation of ovarian follicles containing the eggs. Women are taught how to administer the injections at home on the first day they are prescribed the medication injection. Later on their blood is tested to measure hormone levels. The main goal is to stimulate the production of multiple follicles but these numbers can vary widely. Some women can produce 20 or more pre cycle while others could possibly only produce two or three. When the follicles have matured the women then administers an injection of human chorionic gonadotrophin, hCG. This is an important medication that has to be taken at the time the women is instructed to do so or the procedure will not successfully take place. After the administration of Hcg, the egg is then retrieved 34-36 hours later. This is where the doctor inserts a long needle through the vagina to remove fluids that contain the mature eggs. This part takes about 20-30 minutes, usually performed as an outpatient procedure and does not require any general anesthesia. Once the eggs has been examined and fertilized by the sperm it is observed for five days before it is then transferred as an embryo to the uterus. After the embryo has been transferred the women is now given the hormone progesterone. This can be given as an injection or through a vaginal suppository. This drug is given to the woman for two weeks and if the implantation is successful a pregnancy test will result in a positive. IVF in the United States can cost for one cycle approximately $10,000 to $15,000. Since many insurance policies don’t cover any type of fertility therapies it is best that couples wanting to do this procedure to check with their insurance companies on what is covered. Currently there are 14 states that require insurers to cover diagnose and some treatments, but even then some policies vary with in the state. If the insurance policy doesn’t cover the treatment the couples alternatively end up paying 100% of the cost up

Saturday, February 29, 2020

Characters of Journeys End by R.C. Sherriff and Birdsong by Sebastian Faulks Essay Example for Free

Characters of Journeys End by R.C. Sherriff and Birdsong by Sebastian Faulks Essay Character (1309) , Sebastian Faulks (9) , Birdsong (8) company About StudyMoose Contact Careers Help Center Donate a Paper Legal Terms & Conditions Privacy Policy Complaints The First World War is known to be one of the worst, if not the worst war in military history. The strategies used were often ineffective and repetitive, meaning a lack of movement and years of stalemate on the western front. Soldiers had to live in conditions which were squalid and foul, they had to deal with diseases such as trench foot and millions of rats and lice infestations. These general images of soldiers living in these fetid conditions has become widely known and linked with the huge suffering caused by the First World War. The use of literature can enable us to gain a picture of what trench warfare was really like. ‘Journey’s End’ a play written by R.C. Sherriff in 1928 based on his own life experiences gives a realistic image of life as a soldier in the trenches. However, the novel ‘Birdsong’ by Sebastian Faulks which was not written till 2005 gives a version of what Faulks believed trench warfare to be like; it is a fictional idea based on knowledge and understanding of World War One. Also the authors chose different formats with one being a novel the other a play, thus giving them contrasting ways of conveying soldiers’ experiences of war. A play deals with the actions and reactions of characters using dialogue and yet a novel can go into the heads of characters, giving the reader an understanding of a person’s emotions and feelings through description and narrative. The characters presented in both Journey’s End and Birdsong are attempting to avoid and deal with the horrors of trench warfare in many different ways including; drinking, violence, and memories of loved ones and trying to use humour as a way of distancing themselves from the horrors facing them. Each character has to find there own way of dealing with the situation, as anyone would when faced with the constant fear of death. In both Journey’s End and Birdsong we get a glimpse of what the characters Stanhope and Wraysford were like before the terror of war affected them. In Journey’s End although we don’t see Stanhope before the war; Sherriff cleverly uses Raleigh to give us an idea of what he was like when he was younger. We see Raleigh as this optimistic, patriotic man excited at the prospect of going into war alongside his childhood hero. His confession to Osborne that he was ‘Keen to get out here’ is a representation of many patriotic soldiers at the break out of the first world war and could show us how Stanhope may have felt before the realisation of what warfare was really like. The growing sense of conflict between Stanhope and Raleigh just shows how much the war has changed Stanhope, and affected him. Not only do we see Raleigh as a young version of Stanhope but also we hear from him background information on Stanhope’s life, ‘he was skipper of Rugger at Barford, and kept wicket for the eleven. A jolly good bat, too.’ This is not needed in Birdsong as we gain a background on what Wraysford was like before the war in part one of the novel. Novels allow writers to add descriptive back stories through narrative rather than dialogue, we can learn about one person’s perspective unlike in a play when we are unable to hear thoughts and feelings – these can only be expressed through actors portraying the role. Birdsong can go into depth about the emotional effects war can have on a person, which is a tricky detail to encapsulate in a play and yet I believe R.C. Sherriff uses dialogue and the actions of each individual to show their emotional state. We can see strongly in both, just what the war can do, seeing and living in those conditions certainly would bring about change in a person however it is the way they deal with it that helps them continue on through. An easy escape for many soldiers during the war was drink. For an ordinary private on the front line getting alcohol was hard and they were only allowed a small drop before going over the top, however officers were allowed to drink (as believed responsible enough for it) and alcoholism among officers was common. Both Stanhope in Journey’s End and Wraysford and Weir in Birdsong use drink as a method of getting through the horrors in front of them, ‘She doesn’t know that if I went up those steps into the front line – without being doped with whisky – I’d go mad with fright’. Drink was a way to forget, and maybe for a moment be away from the front line in their heads, although eventually become addicted not needing it for any purpose but for wanting, ‘cast his eyes round hopefully. Stephen reluctantly pushed a bottle towards him’. Drink was not the best way to deal with the situation though, it may have clouded their memories but would not have completed erase them ‘if sleep came it was as a gift and was as likely to come after tea as after alcohol’. Soldiers on the front line could turn on each other, either because of alcohol consumption or just the fact that these men were pushed together in such bad conditions. Maybe getting angry at one another would give them something other than fighting the enemy to focus on ‘Hibbert raises his stick and strikes blindly at Stanhope’. The violence shown in Journey’s End could also represent the battles taking place outside, as an audience member you never get to see any conflict between the enemy and therefore Stanhope’s arguments and fights with the soldier’s substitutes this. The anger Stanhope feels towards Hibbert and also Raleigh, could also show us how he feels and acts in battle situations. Unlike Journey’s End in Birdsong we are able to follow Stephen as he goes out into No-man’s land, fighting for his life but we also get violence in the trenches too ‘Fuck off, Weir, fuck off out of my way’. The use of the word ‘fuck’ is a powerful one; we can understand Wraysford’s fear just through that one word, all his fear for the battle ahead builds up the tension. In Journey’s End Stanhope is worried about what Raleigh would write home in his letter, I believe that maybe another matter that Stanhope uses to redirect his thoughts away from memories, it gives him something else to think about. Which again leads to more violence ‘D’you understand an order? Give me that letter!’ Despite these small areas of conflict there is a strong theme in both Journey’s End and Birdsong, of comradeship. Men on the front line were often forced into forming new relationships with people and often because of this gained extraordinarily strong bonds with men they were fighting alongside with. This is shown by the example of Stanhope and Osborne, and shown to the audience in many scenes but mostly through the touching goodbye scene before the fatal raid and right at the end Stanhope and Raleigh final bond over his death, ‘Stanhope sits with one hand on Raleigh’s arm’ they had fought together in the same battles and known what the other men had seen, they understood. In Birdsong the strong relationship between Wraysford and Weir grew throughout the novel and like many soldiers on the frontline Wraysford needed Weir for company and to help his sanity, ‘Weir alone had made the war bearable’ friendships like Weir’s and Wraysford’s meant that soldiers could get through the war together. They did not need to be alone. Although Raleigh in Journey’s End believed he needed to distance himself when Osborne dies, Raleigh who is first seen as this innocent character in the beginning of the play is opened to this horror after the death of Osborne, he now knows truly just how hard . He eats away from the officers with the other men, he finds it disrespectful that the others are eating and drinking. Maybe some may believe distancing themselves would mean when or if it came to them dying it would not be as hard. Many soldiers needed to be friends, to join together because even though loss is hard the sharing of jokes in such a situation as terrible as this one may have helped. In Journey’s End many of the characters particularly Trotter’s main form of escapism is in making jokes about the war and the Germans ‘I expect a nasty old German’ll cop out of it and say, ‘Ock der Kaiser’ in doing this they are able to cover up their fear and make light of the situation. In Birdsong the use of comedy is more subtle, the soldiers go down to the pub and watch entertainment and laugh with each other as friends rather than making obvious jokes. Jack performing for the soldiers gave some time for the men to relax and enjoy themselves. ‘If they could shout loud enough, they might bring the world back to its senses; they might laugh loud enough to raise the dead’ although raising the dead was not possible, the idea that in laughing and having as good a time as you can they could remember their losses and keep them alive in their thoughts. In Journey’s End some of the soldiers liked to talk about home and familiar things like rugby and cricket to take their minds of the horrors of trench warfare. Thinking about home would help them to remember how their life was before the war; it would make them want to get out and gave them something to live for. Another thing they might think about is their girlfriends, wives or just women in general, ‘I just prayed to come through the war – and – and do things – and keep absolutely fit for her’. Jack Firebrace wanted to survive for his family, dealt with the struggle with the belief he had his wife and child to return to ‘His endurance was for them; the care he took to try to stay alive was so that he would see the boy again’. As for Stephen he did not have a family or anyone really he wanted to go home for, he kept on fighting and wanting to survive for the men who had died before, he wanted to win, to continue for their benefit. The idea and hope that the men he had lost had not died in vain. With trench conditions as foul as they were; rats, lice and illnesses such as trench foot one thing that could keep the men going was the idea and the relief of getting food. The importance of food in Journey’s End is shown by how many times the men talk about it and bring it up in general conversation. Complaining about inconsequential things like chunks of pineapple instead of apricots take their minds of the war ‘I say, Stanhope, it’s a terrible business. We thought we’d got a tin of pineapple chunks; it turns out to be apricots’. The men on the front lines wouldn’t very often have the nicest of food, and when Stanhope has to visit the Colonel and is given really expensive foods he immediately thinks of his men but he will eat the food as it is the one thing that he can gain pleasure from ‘A thin stew followed, then ripe cheese and fresh bread. Lunch went on past three o’clock†¦Stephen smiled to himself, aware that his bri ef flight from reality would soon be ended’. Birdsong touches on the idea of religion and how this can be affected by war. Many soldiers lost their faith due to the mass slaughter or even the loss of a son at home like Jack Firebrace however Stephen seemed to gain a belief in God, the idea that nothing this cruel can be the end. He hoped that when Weir or any other Soldier died they had a better world to escape to and maybe this idea kept him going helped him deal with the death of his friends. Journey’s End doesn’t really touch on the men’s faith or religion, however the idea of hero worshipping used by Raleigh could be linked. The belief in a God and a higher being could also be like Raleigh looking up to Stanhope ‘I believe Raleigh will go on liking you – and looking up to you – through everything. There’s something very deep, and rather fine, about hero worship.’ Many soldiers may have used the method of positive thinking like Osborne to cover up just how scared and fearful they were ‘I never knew the sun could rise in so many ways till I came out here’. Each soldier on the front line had to choose their own way of escaping and dealing with the horrors of trench warfare. The putrid living conditions and the everyday horror of death meant that it was necessary for them to break out of the truth they were living. Many of the methods used in both Journey’s End and Birdsong are similar but their methods were carried out in different ways. Others didn’t use methods at all, they just didn’t cope; like Hibbert in Journey’s End faking an illness to get away. Each character in either Journey’s End or Birdsong took on different methods of dealing with their long hardships and suffering. The true horrors of the war however could not be forgotten, the sight of death and the stench in the trenches would not be quickly removed from their thoughts. These literary texts both play and book give us, today, just a brief insight into the lives of men on the western front, the challenges faced by these men were truly horrific and just surviving must have been a hardship. No one now or then on the home front could ever know the true extent of the struggle and the effects it had both mentally and physically, ‘If they could see the way these men live they would not believe their eyes. This is not a war; this is an exploration of how far men can be degraded.’ Characters of Journeys End by R.C. Sherriff and Birdsong by Sebastian Faulks. 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Thursday, February 13, 2020

Analyze the Slave Petitions in light of the key changes taking place Essay

Analyze the Slave Petitions in light of the key changes taking place in this new American society - Essay Example They campaigned for equality and recognition of their rights and racial acceptance among other Americans, who still embraced unjust treatment through slavery. This compelled blacks in new American society to lobby for recognition through petitions that they submitted to congress and senate for redress despite the open hostility that they faced from their white counterparts. Slave petitions were vital in the campaign for the rights of blacks, mostly slaves, in new American society. This is what later resulted to the 1963 match to Washington. During the match, Martin Luther delivered his renowned speech advocating for the rights of black slaves in new America. Besides King and his proponents’ efforts, there several other slave petitions were praiseworthy for the changes attained in new American society. They brought recognition for Black Americans, enhanced justice and appreciation. Before the petitions, the nation’s culture and societal set-up was one that could not withstand the face of revolutionary changes. As such, the culture, societal set-up and political landscape of the U.S. changed significantly and subsequently during the course of the journey. The America revolution began during the 18th century during when it attained its independence from the British. The declaration of independence rendered Americans including blacks free and independent (Williams 21). Essentially, slave petitions in the new American society sought to restore black Americans’ sovereign and the recognition of their rights (Main, Mark and John 226). Slave petitions propagated for liberty and self-representative and were an awakening during the revolutionary war. Proponents of slave petitions opted to pursue the representative way. In 1774, blacks submitted the petition of "A Grate Number of Blackes". Through the petition, enslaved Americans advocated for freedom as a fortune of the revolution (Dorsey 152). It is during this time that the slaves also took